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April 6, 2021


Robots aiding human

Line Following Robot

3 min read

Line Following ROBOT (With Microcontroller)


Line following robots is mostly used in industries with automated raw material transportation from one place to other just by following either a black line or a white line without any human aid. Line follower can be of two types Black line follower and white line follower and can be built with the help of Infrared Sensor Module.


It works on the principle of receiving HIGH value in the output for reflection of Infrared Rays due to light coloured obstacle and LOW value in the output for reflection of Infrared Rays due to Dark coloured Obstacle.

“Line Following robot is not actually Line following its actually Line avoiding”, we use minimum 2 IR sensor placed side by side of the line to be followed so that whenever the IR sensor gets any unusual value than the regular it would change the path.



  1. Microcontroller Board (Arduino UNO, AVR:Atmega 16:, PIC, PID, etc.).
  2. Infrared Sensor Module(min-2)
  3. Jumper wires(As required)
  4. Chassis.
  5. DC Geared Motor (60-150)rpm for better detection.
  6. Motor Driver Module(L298N/ L293D)
  7. Wheels.
  8. DC Power source (9V-12V).


Arduino Uno

Arduino Uno is an ATmega 328p Microcontroller based prototyping board. It is an open-source electronic prototyping platform that can be used with various sensors and actuators. Arduino Uno has 14 digital and 6 Analog I/O pins out of which 6 pins are used in this project.

Motor Driver(L298N / L293D)

It is a motor driver which can provide bi-directional drive current for two motors. L298N is very reliable as it can take up to 12-35V and has an attached heat sink for better performance. L293D can also be used for low current consuming DC Motor.

IR Sensor Module

The infra-red Sensor module is commonly used in Line Following Robots and it has a wide range of use, In this Line following Robot, IR Sensor has been used where an IR Array can also be used.

DC Geared Motor

Adding a gear-train to the output of any motor will reduce the speed, while simultaneously increasing torque. 


Chassis is the body of the Line following Robot which holds the Sensors and Actuators in place.


The operating conditions of the LFR(Line Following Robot) are low light conditions so that no external light interfere in the process. A line following Robot can be made of minimum 2 IR sensor and can go up to 5-8 IR sensor array. The more the sensors the more combinations you get to code with IDE provided. IR sensors should be placed within 1 cm facing towards the surface of the line, modern IR sensors have a potentiometer which makes It possible to adjust the sensitivity but the fundamentals must be maintained.

Software To be used to program:

  1. Arduino IDE: the simplest IDE available
  • Atmel Studio: It is the IDE used for all Atmega ICs its coding is different than Arduino IDE but Arduino can be programmed using Atmel Studio as they also use ATmega Chips.

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